• Codeine is a commonly used prodrug opioid
  • It must be metabolized into morphine for activity
  • Cytochrome P450 allele CYP2D6 is the metabolizing enzyme in the liver
  • 7% of Caucasians are missing one copy of the Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene
  • Codeine does not work effectively in these individuals

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